Donald Sensing has some interesting speculation on how the world might be different if Germany had one the Battle of the Marne in 1914.
All of these effects, reverberating to this very day, may be argued to have resulted from the allied victory at the Battle of the Marne. Had the allies lost that battle, I think one may make a good case that none of the following would have occurred:Particularly with regard to Nazis, the Holocaust, and the existence of Israel I think Rev. Sensing is probably correct; and the specific wars he mentions (Vietnam and Korea) would not have happened without the USSR.
- The rise fascism in Italy and of Nazism in Germany,
- The rise of a communist Soviet Union, although the Czar would likely have been deposed eventually (more likely, would have become a figurehead monarch along the lines of Britain’s)
- World War II in Europe, and probably not in Asia. Japan would still have had imperial ambitions, but they would not have brought the world into conflict, and perhaps not the US.
- Hence, no Cold War and none of its attendant ravages
- A much less powerful United States, but one still secure and free
- No communist China
- No Vietnam War
- No Korean War
- No free and democratic Japan
- No Holocaust
- Hence, no establishment of the state of Israel
- Hence, no history of war, conflict and terrorism in the Middle East
- No Iranian Islamic revolution,
- Hence, no rise of modern radical Islamism
- Hence no 9/11/01 attacks.
Of course I expect that this short list is neither exhaustive nor non-debatable. This is a thought experiment, after all. Add that science and technology would have progressed in wildly different ways and pace, as well, so perhaps no space race or moon landings (yet) nor medical MRIs nor even perhaps any personal computers (again, yet).
Rev. Sensing is far more knowledgable about history than I am, but European land wars had been going on for centuries; there's no reason to think that yet another wouldn't have followed WW1 if Germany had been victorious rather than France. Furthermore, without the peace enforced by the United States as a result WW2, it's virtually certain that in the 90 years since WW1 there would have been 2 or 3 more wars fought between the European powers.
Marxism and communism got a big boost from the USSR, but the memes were already out there just waiting to take root. If they hadn't found fertile ground in Russia, it would likely have been somewhere else. Would that have led to a similar Cold War? Who knows, maybe not, but it would still have led to opposition by the United States.
It's not likely that the nation of Israel would exist without the horrific events of the Holocaust, but even without their Jewish scape-goat the Arab/Muslim nations of the world would likely be terribly backwards. Yes, foreign rule and support for dictators has contributed to the condition of the Arab states, but it's not just the Arab Muslims who are having problems. The Muslim religion is much less malable and compatible with the advance of civilization than other major religions appear to be (as Donald himself has pointed out).
Finally, I doubt that America would be much less powerful than we are now. The details of our rise to world supremacy would be different, but our power is largely the result of two factors: our vast natural resources, and our attitude as a people. The exact circumstances that motivated our involvement with the world would likely be different, but the existence of the modern, military-industrial American powerhouse seems inevitable. Unless, of course, we were to lose some major war that occured in this alternate history.